INTRODUCTION:Antibiotic resistance is one of the main factors that determine the efficacy of treatments to eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of first-line and rescue treatments against H. pylori in Europe according to antibiotics resistance.METHODS:Prospective, multicenter, international registry on the management of H. pylori (European Registry on H. pylori Management). All infected and culture-diagnosed adult patients registered in the Spanish Association of Gastroenterology-Research Electronic Data Capture from 2013 to 2021 were included.RESULTS:A total of 2,852 naive patients with culture results were analyzed. Resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and quinolones was 22%, 27%, and 18%, respectively. The most effective treatment, regardless of resistance, were the 3-in-1 single capsule with bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline (91%) and the quadruple with bismuth, offering optimal cure rates even in the presence of bacterial resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole. The concomitant regimen with tinidazole achieved an eradication rate of 99% (90/91) vs 84% (90/107) with metronidazole. Triple schedules, sequential, or concomitant regimen with metronidazole did not achieve optimal results. A total of 1,118 non-naive patients were analyzed. Resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and quinolones was 49%, 41%, and 24%, respectively. The 3-in-1 single capsule (87%) and the triple therapy with levofloxacin (85%) were the only ones that provided encouraging results.DISCUSSION:In regions where the antibiotic resistance rate of H. pylori is high, eradication treatment with the 3-in-1 single capsule, the quadruple with bismuth, and concomitant with tinidazole are the best options in naive patients. In non-naive patients, the 3-in-1 single capsule and the triple therapy with levofloxacin provided encouraging results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)646-654
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Gastroenterology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2024


FundersFunder number
European Helicobacter
Mayoly and Allergan
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas
Spanish Association of Gastroenterology
European Commission101095359
European Commission
UK Research and Innovation10058099
UK Research and Innovation
European Union programme EU4Health101101252


    • Helicobacter pylori
    • non-naive
    • resistance
    • treatment


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