Fully anisotropic problems are found where the radiative interaction is due to small-scale elements that lack spherical symmetry, for example: fibrous insulation, finned heat sinks, plant canopies, and some solar energy absorbers. We present the effective bulk optical properties of a PM composed of small-scale opaque cylinders. The properties are derived from data generated by detailed Monte-Carlo numerical experiments. The data reduction procedure is relatively simple and does not require a full solution and optimization of the Radiative Transfer Equation. Benchmark cases are presented, comparing an exact solution (with geometric detail of the cylinder array) and an approximate solution using a continuous PM model with the effective volumetric properties.
- Heat transfer
- Numerical methods