Effect of water polo practice on cytokines, growth mediators, and leukocytes in girls

Dan Nemet, Christie M. Rose-Gottron, Paul J. Mills, Dan M. Cooper*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: The effects of exercise on growth and development are mediated through a complex interaction between the endocrine, immune, and nervous systems. Very little is known about how these systems respond to exercise in children or adolescents. Moreover, there are few studies that have examined growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, and leukocyte responses to "real-life" or field exercise solely in girls. Thus, the goal of the present study was to determine the acute exercise-induced alterations in the growth hormone → insulin-like growth factor-I axis, inflammatory cytokines, and certain aspects of immune function in a group of adolescent girls after a typical water polo practice. Methods: Ten, healthy, high-school female subjects, 14-16 yr old, performed a single, typical, 1.5-h water polo practice session. Blood was sampled before and after the session. Results: The exercise resulted in an increase in HR (from 82 ± 2 to 161 ± 5 beats·min-1 at 30 min, P < 1.4·10-6), as well as in circulating lactate levels (375 ± 66%, P < 0.0005). Significant increases where noted in circulating IL-6 (396 ± 162%, P < 0.005) and IL-1ra (71 ± 20%, P < 0.015). A substantial increase in the level of IGFBP-1 (1344 ± 344%, P < 0.001) was also observed. Interestingly, TNF-α levels decreased after the exercise (-10.4 ± 3.8%, P < 0.04) as did insulin (55 ± 12%, P < 0.005). The exercise led to significant increases in granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. The exercise significantly influenced adhesion molecules (such as CD62L and CD54), which has not been previously studied in adolescent girls. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that an intense "real-life" exercise bout in adolescent females leads to profound increases in inflammatory cytokines and reductions in anabolic mediators with substantial alterations in white blood cell subpopulations and adhesion molecules. The role of these frequent, almost daily immune and cytokine changes on growth and development have yet to be determined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)356-363
Number of pages8
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Adhesion molecules
  • IL-6
  • Physical activity
  • TNF-α
  • White blood cells


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