A. Kornberg, S. Kaufman, L. Silber and J. S. Ishay. Effect of venom sac extract of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis) on coagulation factors. Toxicon 26 1169-1176, 1988.-Venom sac extract of the Oriental hornet significantly prolongs the prothrombin time and the activated partial thromboplastin time both in vitro in human plasma and in vivo in cats. Activity of factors VIII and IX in plasma is reduced to less than 1% within 5 min even with 1 μg of venom sac extract per ml. The activity of purified factor VIII, as well as semipurified factors IX and X, in factor IX complex was also significantly reduced after incubation with the venom. The decrease of factors II, V, VII, X, XI and XII activity to 9%, 11%, 11%, 29%, 1.7% and 0.7% of normal, respectively, is dose- and time-dependent. Thrombin time, plasma fibrinogen and fibrin degradation products are not affected. The anticoagulant activity is not reversed by dialysis and is abolished completely by heating; it resides mainly in fractions with mol.wts above 5000. The venom has a proteolytic activity on 14C-globin which is partially inhibited by trasylol and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Thus, the venom sac extract exhibits both serine and metaloprotease activities which may affect the activity of the plasma coagulation factors.