Effect of silane reaction time on the repair of a nanofilled composite using tribochemical treatment

Raphael Pilo*, Tamar Brosh, Valery Geron, Shifra Levartovsky, George Eliades

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To investigate the influence of silane reaction time on the repair strength of an aged nanofilled composite and to characterize the bonding mechanism. Materials and Methods: Nanofilled composite disks (n = 110, Filtek Supreme XT) were aged for 90 days in water. After tribochemical treatment (CoJet-Sand), the specimens were assigned to 5 groups (n = 22), primed with silane (Espe-Sil), and left to react for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min. A thin layer of adhesive (Visio-Bond) was applied and a new composite with the same dimension was placed and cured. Non-aged specimens immediately layered and cured using the incremental technique served as controls. After aging (30 days in water plus 5000 thermal cycles), the interface was subjected to a shearing force until failure. Failure mode was evaluated under a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additional aged and treated surfaces were evaluated for morphology as well as elemental and molecular composition using SEM/EDX and ATR-FTIR. Results: The mean shear bond strength (SBS) of the repaired specimens was 53.9 ± 8.6 MPa, with no significant difference among the various reaction times, but significantly lower compared to the control (88.1 ± 12.5 MPa). Tribochemical treatment created an irregular surface morphology with particles imbedded in the aged surface. Interfacial SEM/EDX analysis showed a 5-μm non-uniform high atomic number zone rich in Al and Si. Conclusion: Tribochemical treatments for repairing composite using a short silane reaction period (1 min) are equally effective as the prolonged reaction periods (2 to 5 min), yielding interfacial shear strength of ~60% of unrepaired material.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)125-134
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Adhesive Dentistry
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2016


  • Interfacial characterization
  • Reaction time
  • Repair
  • Resin composite
  • Silane
  • Surface
  • Tribochemical


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