The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prophylactic antibiotic treatment on prenatal and neonatal outcome after preterm premature rupture of the membranes (P-PROM). The study population consisted of 172 pregnant women admitted to the Rabin Medical Center in Israel with P-PROM at 23-34 gestational weeks. The patients were divided into two groups by mode of expectant management - prophylactic ampicillin and erythromycin (study group, n = 121) or observation only (control group, n = 51) and compared for neonatal outcome. There were no significant differences between the groups in age, gravidity, parity, or gestational age at admission. Significantly more women in the study group had an interval of more than 24 hours from onset of P-PROM to delivery (98 women, 81%) than the control group (32 women, 63%) (p = 0.001). The neonatal mortality rate was significantly lower in the study group (6.6%) than the control group (17.6%) (p = 0.03). The lower neonatal mortality rate associated with prophylactic antibiotic treatment in P-PROM has important clinical implications for the effectiveness of this type- of management.
- Neonatal mortality