Ecological Momentary Assessment of Awake Bruxism with a Smartphone Application Requires Prior Patient Instruction for Enhanced Terminology Comprehension: A Multi-Center Study

Laura Nykänen*, Daniele Manfredini, Frank Lobbezoo, Antti Kämppi, Anna Colonna, Alessandra Zani, André Mariz Almeida, Alona Emodi-Perlman, Aslak Savolainen, Alessandro Bracci, Jari Ahlberg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

The prevalence of awake bruxism (AB) has been reported as being 30%, with sleep bruxism (SB) at 9–15%. Most studies have focused on SB, emphasizing the importance of AB research. For epidemiological evaluations of AB, a smartphone application based on ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was introduced. The aims of this multi-center study were: (1) to investigate how well lay subjects comprehend the AB terminology used in the smartphone application, and (2) to find out whether professional instruction improved their comprehension. The study population consisted of lay subjects from Italy, Portugal, and Finland comprising 307 individuals (156 men, 151 women; 18–86 years). Subjects first completed a five-item questionnaire about the meanings of the five AB terms used in the smartphone application. Each question offered four answer options, with one being correct. Immediately afterwards, the meanings of the terms were instructed. Lastly, the subjects were re-tested with the same questionnaire. In Finland and Italy, the re-tested correct answer scores for the single terms were at 89–97% per term. Improved comprehension was seen across sex, education, and age groups. In the Portuguese data, no improvement was found. Significant differences were found between countries in the improved scores for all terms that were correct following the instruction (Finland, 16.3% to 72.1%; Italy, 32.3% to 83.8%; Portugal, 23.1% to 33.7%) (p < 0.001). In conclusion, standardized instruction on AB terminology prior to EMA is recommended to improve the reliability of collected data.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3444
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Volume11
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2022

Funding

FundersFunder number
Helsingin Yliopisto

    Keywords

    • awake bruxism
    • ecological momentary assessment
    • medical terminology comprehension

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