Echis coloratus envenomation in children: a retrospective case series

Miguel Glatstein, Liat Lerman, Dvir Gatt, Dennis Scolnik, Ayelet Rimon, Christopher Hoyte, Isaac Iazar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Antivenom has been used successfully to treat systemic and progressive, local manifestations of envenomations inflicted by Echis coloratus, the second most common cause of snake envenomation in Israel. There is a paucity of published data regarding the use of monovalent (equine) immunoglobulin G antivenom in children. This study describes outcomes from the regimen used in two large, tertiary care pediatric centers. Methods: A retrospective chart review of children admitted with definite or probable signs of Echis coloratus envenomation to Sourasky (Tel Aviv) and Soroka (Be’er Sheva) Medical Centers from January 1st 2008–to June 1st 2019. Extracted data included age, location of bite, time to hospital arrival, laboratory test results, complications, time to antivenom administration if indicated, adverse effects of the antivenom, and outcomes. Indications for antivenom were: diagnosis of Echis coloratus as the etiology of envenomation, local and systemic signs e.g. skin puncture wounds, swelling of the involved limb, local hematoma, and abnormal coagulation blood test results. Results: During the study period, 11 children were treated with intravenous Echis coloratus antivenom. Median age was 9 years and 10 of 11 patients were male. Two patients underwent fasciotomy; in one, compartment syndrome was diagnosed by pressure measurement, and in the second, clinically. One patient developed mild urticaria 30 min after initiation of the antivenom; the treatment was stopped and then restarted at a slower rate after he was treated with hydrocortisone and diphenhydramine. No further adverse reactions were observed. Conclusions: In children, Echis coloratus antivenom appeared to be effective and safe for the treatment of systemic and progressive local manifestations of envenomation by Echis coloratus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)293-297
Number of pages5
JournalClinical Toxicology
Volume60
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2022

Keywords

  • Echis coloratus
  • antivenom
  • case series
  • children
  • envenomation

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