Early tracheostomy after cardiac surgery improves intermediate- and long-term survival

Eitan Keizman, Jonathan K. Frogel, Eilon Ram, David Volvovitch, Tamer Jamal, Shany Levin, Ehud Raanani, Leonid Sternik, Alexander Kogan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Complicated post-cardiac surgery course, can lead to both prolonged ICU stay and ventilation, and may require a tracheostomy. This study represents the single-center experience with post-cardiac surgery tracheostomy. The aim of this study was to assess the timing of tracheostomy as a risk factor for early, intermediate, and late mortality. The study's second aim was to assess the incidence of both superficial and deep sternal wound infections. Design: Retrospective study of prospectively collected data. Setting: Tertiary hospital. Patients: Patients were divided into 3 groups, according to the timing of tracheostomy; early (4−10 days); intermediate (11−20 days) and late (≥21 days). Interventions: None. Main variables of interest: The primary outcomes were early, intermediate, and long-term mortality. The secondary outcome was the incidence of sternal wound infection. Results: During the 17-year study period, 12,782 patients underwent cardiac surgery, of whom 407 (3.18%) required postoperative tracheostomy. 147 (36.1%) had early, 195 (47.9%) intermediate, and 65 (16%) had a late tracheostomy. Early, 30-day, and in-hospital mortality was similar for all groups. However, patients, who underwent early- and intermediate tracheostomy, demonstrated statistically significant lower mortality after 1- and 5-year (42.8%; 57.4%; 64.6%; and 55.8%; 68.7%; 75.4%, respectively; P < .001). Cox model demonstrated age [1.025 (1.014–1.036)] and timing of tracheostomy [0.315 (0.159−0.757)] had significant impacts on mortality. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a relationship between the timing of tracheostomy after cardiac surgery and mortality: early tracheostomy (within 4−10 days of mechanical ventilation) is associated with better intermediate- and long-term survival.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)516-525
Number of pages10
JournalMedicina Intensiva
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • Cardiac surgery
  • Prolonged mechanical ventilation
  • Survival
  • Tracheostomy


Dive into the research topics of 'Early tracheostomy after cardiac surgery improves intermediate- and long-term survival'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this