Dynamic analysis and drilling degrees of freedom

Thomas J.R. Hughes*, Arif Masud, Isaac Harari

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Finite element methods for dynamic analysis employing elements with drilling degrees of freedom are presented. The formulation is based on a variational principle in which displacements and rotations are interpolated independently. The issue of zero masses corresponding to rotational degrees of freedom is addressed and techniques for defining consistent and lumped rotational mass matrices are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3193-3210
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering
Issue number19
StatePublished - 15 Oct 1995


  • elastodynamics
  • finite elements
  • independent rotation fields
  • rotational mass matrices


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