Background and Purpose: Torsion of the testicular appendages (TTA) is the most common cause of acute scrotum in children, and yet there are only few dedicated studies of the imaging findings. Objective: To review our experience with the use of duplex sonography in children with TTA and to evaluate if sonography can successfully distinguish TTA from epididymoorchitis. Methods: We reviewed the medical files and imaging findings of 29 children aged 0.7 to 13.9 years (mean, 6.5 years) with a diagnosis of TTA based on testicular exploration who were evaluated preoperatively with duplex sonography. Results: A tender upper pole nodule, the typical sign of TTA, was palpated in only 2 (6.9%) children. Duplex sonography demonstrated an extratesticular upper pole nodule in 9 (31%) children. Secondary inflammatory changes included hydrocele in 22 (75.9%), enlarged epididymis in 22 (75.9%), scrotal wall edema in 16 (55.2%), and swollen testis in 9 (31%) children. Fourteen (48%) children had inflammatory changes with no evidence of an extratesticular nodule. Conclusion: Duplex sonography findings of secondary inflammatory changes in the absence of evidence of an extratesticular nodule may suggest an erroneous diagnosis of epididymitis or epididymoorchitis in children with TTA.
- Duplex sonography
- Testicular appendages