In the present study we compared the efficacy and safety of the new dopamine agonist cabergoline (CBG) with bromocriptine (BCR) in Parkinson's disease (PD). CBG has a very long half-life and can be administered as a single daily dose. Forty-four PD patients with uncontrolled motor fluctuations participated in the study. Patients were randomly and blindly assigned to equivalent doses of either CBG or BCR in addition to preexisting levodopa. Dosage was titrated to optimal, using up to 6 mg of CBG or 40 mg of BCR daily. CBG was given as a single morning dose whereas BCR was administered tid. Sixteen patients were followed for 1 year and 16 additional patients for 6 months. The mean follow-up duration was 9 ± 5 months. The main effect of both drugs was observed on motor UPDRS scores, rigidity, bradykinesia items, and the percentage of awake hours spent during 'on' and 'off.' In general, the effect of CBG was similar to that of BCR. The percentage of awake hours spent during 'on' was higher with CBG as compared with BCR. Adverse events included dyskinesias, orthostatism, confusion, edema, and paresthesias in limbs. These effects were seen at similar frequencies with both drugs. The study shows that CBG given as a single morning dose is at least as efficacious as BCR given tid. CBG is a promising dopamine agonist for the treatment of motor fluctuations in PD.