Purpose. It is controversial whether donor-recipient sex mismatch is a risk factor associated with corneal graft failure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sex mismatch on corneal graft failure in high-risk and non-high-risk patients. Design. A retrospective study. Methods. The medical charts of patients who underwent corneal transplantations by one surgeon between 2012 and 2017 were reviewed. Patients were defined as high-risk for failure if they had glaucoma, ocular surface disease, or corneal vascularization. Graft failure rates were compared using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves between sex matched and mismatched subjects and between male-to-female grafting and other patients. Results. One hundred and thirteen patients with a minimum follow-up of 18 months were included. In 62 non-high-risk patients, graft failure rates were similar between the sex mismatched and the sex matched recipients (p=0.645, log-rank) and in male donor to female recipient transplantations and in the other transplantations (p=0.496, log-rank). Analysis of fifty-one eyes of 51 high-risk graft recipients (mean age of 73.4 ± 12.7 years, N = 26 females) showed that graft failure rates were significantly higher in the sex mismatched than sex matched recipients (p=0.022, log-rank) and in male donor to female recipient transplantations than in the other transplantations (p=0.002, log-rank). Conclusions. Sex matching for every patient bares logistic difficulties; however, in patients who are at high-risk for graft failure, it may be a simple way to improve outcomes and better utilize corneal grafts.