Distribution, disease level and virulence variation of bremia lactucae on lactuca sativa in the czech republic in the period 1999-2011

Irena Petrželová, Aleš Lebeda*, Evsey Kosman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We report the distribution and disease level of downy mildew on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and virulence variation in populations of its causal agent (Bremia lactucae) in the Czech Republic during the period 1999-2011. Disease incidence was not high; among a total of 92 different localities surveyed, 43.4% of them were infected by lettuce downy mildew at least once during the whole period. However, among individual years, differences were found in disease incidence that ranged from 4.8% (2009) to 66.7% (2004). A total of 128 isolates of B. lactucae collected from infected leaf samples in 35 different localities during the surveying period were included in the virulence analysis. Virulence was examined on a set of 19 differential genotypes of Lactuca sativa and Lactuca serriola (EU-A test set). Isolates exhibited quite a broad variation in virulence to individual Lactuca differential genotypes. Eighteen of 19 virulence factors (v-factors) tested were present in the samples. The most frequently detected factors were v1-4, v5/8, v6, v7, v10-14, v16, v36 and v38; factor v17 was not found. The most pronounced temporal shift was recorded for factors v36 and v38 whose frequency increased during the studied period. V-factors 15, 17, 18 and 37 were present in low frequencies in a pathogen population, and their corresponding gene (Dm15) or resistance factors (R17, R18 and R37) may have the best potential for resistance breeding in the Czech Republic. Broad diversity of v-phenotypes (63 different ones) was identified during the study period. The numbers of v-factors per v-phenotype (resp. isolate) varied within a range of 5-15. Within the 128 analysed isolates, only 9 v-phenotypes were recorded repeatedly (three or more times). Possible reasons of recorded virulence variation are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)503-514
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Phytopathology
Issue number7-8
StatePublished - Aug 2013


  • Bl: races
  • Disease incidence
  • Disease prevalence
  • Lettuce
  • Lettuce downy mildew
  • Pathogen population
  • Race-specific resistance
  • V- factors
  • V-phenotype
  • Virulence frequency


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