Disseminated mucormycosis in immunocompromised children: Are new antifungal agents making a difference? a multicenter retrospective study

Sarah Elitzur, Salvador Fischer, Nira Arad-Cohen, Assaf Barg, Miriam Ben-Harosh, Dana Danino, Ronit Elhasid, Aharon Gefen, Gil Gilad, Itzhak Levy, Yael Shachor-Meyouhas, Sigal Weinreb, Shai Izraeli, Shlomit Barzilai-Birenboim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection with a tendency for angioinva-sion that may lead to progressive dissemination. Disseminated mucormycosis, defined as the in-volvement of two or more non-contiguous sites, is rare in children, and data concerning its management and outcome are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the contemporary management strategies and outcomes of disseminated mucormycosis in the pediatric population. Methods: We conducted a retrospective search in six large tertiary medical centers for all cases of disseminated mucormycosis that occurred between 2009–2020 in patients aged 1–20 years. Results: Twelve cases were identified. Underlying conditions included hematological malignancies (n = 10), solid tumor (post-autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantations; n = 1), and solid organ (liver) transplantation (n = 1). In all cases, amphotericin B formulations were administered as first-line therapy; in eight cases, they were also administered in combination with an echinocandin or triazole. Seven patients underwent surgical debridement procedures. The six-week mortality was 58%. Among the patients diagnosed between 2009–2015, one of the six survived, and of those diagnosed between 2016–2020, four of the six were salvaged. Conclusions: Disseminated mucormycosis is a life-threat-ening and often fatal disease, and improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are needed. Nev-ertheless, in this population-based study, five patients (42%) were salvaged through combined lip-osomal amphotericin/triazole treatment and extensive surgical interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number165
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Fungi
Volume7
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2021

Keywords

  • Antifungal agents
  • Children
  • Immunocompromised
  • Invasive fungal infections
  • Leukemia
  • Mucormycosis
  • Pediatric hematology oncology

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