Dissecting the Complexity of Skeletal-Malocclusion-Associated Phenotypes: Mouse for the Rescue

Iqbal M. Lone, Osayd Zohud, Aysar Nashef, Christian Kirschneck, Peter Proff, Nezar Watted, Fuad A. Iraqi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Skeletal deformities and malocclusions being heterogeneous traits, affect populations worldwide, resulting in compromised esthetics and function and reduced quality of life. Skeletal Class III prevalence is the least common of all angle malocclusion classes, with a frequency of 7.2%, while Class II prevalence is approximately 27% on average, varying in different countries and between ethnic groups. Orthodontic malocclusions and skeletal deformities have multiple etiologies, often affected and underlined by environmental, genetic and social aspects. Here, we have conducted a comprehensive search throughout the published data until the time of writing this review for already reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genes associated with the development of skeletal deformation-associated phenotypes in different mouse models. Our search has found 72 significant QTL associated with the size of the mandible, the character, shape, centroid size and facial shape in mouse models. We propose that using the collaborative cross (CC), a highly diverse mouse reference genetic population, may offer a novel venue for identifying genetic factors as a cause for skeletal deformations, which may help to better understand Class III malocclusion-associated phenotype development in mice, which can be subsequently translated to humans. We suggest that by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS), an epigenetics-wide association study (EWAS), RNAseq analysis, integrating GWAS and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), micro and small RNA, and long noncoding RNA analysis in tissues associated with skeletal deformation and Class III malocclusion characterization/phenotypes, including mandibular basic bone, gum, and jaw, in the CC mouse population, we expect to better identify genetic factors and better understand the development of this disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2570
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • EWAS
  • GWAS
  • complexity
  • gene expression
  • gene mapping
  • genetic analysis
  • skeletal-malocclusion


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