Discovery of autism/intellectual disability somatic mutations in Alzheimer's brains: mutated ADNP cytoskeletal impairments and repair as a case study

Yanina Ivashko-Pachima, Adva Hadar, Iris Grigg, Vlasta Korenková, Oxana Kapitansky, Gidon Karmon, Michael Gershovits, C. Laura Sayas, R. Frank Kooy, Johannes Attems, David Gurwitz, Illana Gozes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

With Alzheimer’s disease (AD) exhibiting reduced ability of neural stem cell renewal, we hypothesized that de novo mutations controlling embryonic development, in the form of brain somatic mutations instigate the disease. A leading gene presenting heterozygous dominant de novo autism-intellectual disabilities (ID) causing mutations is activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), with intact ADNP protecting against AD-tauopathy. We discovered a genomic autism ADNP mutation (c.2188C>T) in postmortem AD olfactory bulbs and hippocampi. RNA-Seq of olfactory bulbs also identified a novel ADNP hotspot mutation, c.2187_2188insA. Altogether, 665 mutations in 596 genes with 441 mutations in AD patients (389 genes, 38% AD—exclusive mutations) and 104 genes presenting disease-causing mutations (OMIM) were discovered. OMIM AD mutated genes converged on cytoskeletal mechanisms, autism and ID causing mutations (about 40% each). The number and average frequencies of AD-related mutations per subject were higher in AD subjects compared to controls. RNA-seq datamining (hippocampus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, fusiform gyrus and superior frontal gyrus—583 subjects) yielded similar results. Overlapping all tested brain areas identified unique and shared mutations, with ADNP singled out as a gene associated with autism/ID/AD and presenting several unique aging/AD mutations. The large fusiform gyrus library (117 subjects) with high sequencing coverage correlated the c.2187_2188insA ADNP mutation frequency to Braak stage (tauopathy) and showed more ADNP mutations in AD specimens. In cell cultures, the ADNP-derived snippet NAP inhibited mutated-ADNP-microtubule (MT) toxicity and enhanced Tau–MT association. We propose a paradigm-shifting concept in the perception of AD whereby accumulating mosaic somatic mutations promote brain pathology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1619-1633
Number of pages15
JournalMolecular Psychiatry
Volume26
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2021

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Discovery of autism/intellectual disability somatic mutations in Alzheimer's brains: mutated ADNP cytoskeletal impairments and repair as a case study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this