Direction-aware mapping algorithms have minimal impact on bipolar voltage maps created using high-resolution multielectrode catheters

Hagai D. Yavin, Jakub Sroubek, Jonathan Yarnitsky, Zachary P. Bubar, Koji Higuchi, Israel Zilberman, Shubhayu Basu, Elad Anter*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Direction-aware mapping algorithms improve the accuracy of voltage mapping by measuring the maximal voltage amplitude recorded in the direction of wavefront propagation. While beneficial for stationary catheters, its utility for roving catheters collecting electrograms (EGMs) at multiple angles is unknown. Objective: To compare the directional dependence of bipolar voltage amplitude between stationary and roving catheters. Methods: In 10 swine, a transcaval ablation line with a gap was created. The gap was mapped using an array catheter (Optrell™; Biosense Webster). In Step 1, the array was kept stationary over the gap, and four voltage maps were created during activation of the gap from superior, inferior, septal, and lateral directions. In Step 2, four additional maps were created; however, the catheter was allowed to move with points acquired at multiple angles. In Step 3, the gap was remapped; however, bipoles were computed using a direction-aware mapping algorithm. Results: In a stationary catheter position, bipolar voltage distribution was influenced by the direction of activation with maximal differences obtained between orthogonal directions 32% (13%–53%). However, roving the catheter produced similar bipolar voltage maps irrespective of the direction of activation 11% (5%–18%). A direction-aware mapping algorithm was beneficial for reducing the directional dependence of voltage maps created by stationary catheters but not by roving catheters. Conclusion: The directional dependency of bipolar voltage amplitude is greatest when the catheter is stationary. However, when the catheter is allowed to rove and collect EGMs at multiple angles as occurs clinically, the directional dependence of bipolar voltage is minimal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-80
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes


FundersFunder number
Biosense Webster


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