The progression of prostate cancer from an organ-confined, androgen-sensitive disease to a metastatic one is associated with dysregulation of androgen receptor (AR)-regulated target genes and with a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) expression. To investigate the differential effects of wild type (wt) and mutant AR on IGF-IR levels we employed a series of isogenic prostate-derived cell lines and human xenografts. We show that basal and phosphorylated IGF-IR levels progressively decreased as prostate cancer cells became more tumorigenic and metastatic. In addition, we show that wt, but not mutant, AR along with dihydrotestosterone treatment increased IGF-IR promoter activity and endogenous IGF-IR levels. ChIP analysis show enhanced AR binding to the IGF-IR promoter in AR-overexpressing cells. Finally, wt AR-overexpressing cells display an enhanced proliferation rate. In summary, we provide evidence that activated wt AR enhances IGF-IR transcription in prostate cancer cells via a mechanism that involves AR binding to the IGF-IR promoter. AR mutations alter the ability of the mutated protein to regulate IGF-IR expression. Our results suggest that prostate cancer progression is associated with a decrease in IGF-IR expression that could be the result of impaired ability of AR to stimulate IGF-IR gene expression.
- Androgen receptor
- IGF-I receptor
- Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)
- Prostate cancer