Dichromatic "breather Molecules" in a Mode-Locked Fiber Laser

Yudong Cui*, Yusheng Zhang, Lin Huang, Aiguo Zhang, Zhiming Liu, Cuifang Kuang, Chenning Tao, Daru Chen, Xu Liu, Boris A. Malomed

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bound states of solitons ("molecules") occur in various settings, playing an important role in the operation of fiber lasers, optical emulation, encoding, and communications. Soliton interactions are generally related to breathing dynamics in nonlinear dissipative systems, and maintain potential applications in spectroscopy. In the present work, dichromatic breather molecules (DBMs) are created in a synchronized mode-locked fiber laser. Real-time delay-shifting interference spectra are measured to display the temporal evolution of the DBMs, that cannot be observed by means of the usual real-time spectroscopy. As a result, robust out-of-phase vibrations are found as a typical intrinsic mode of DBMs. The same bound states are produced numerically in the framework of a model combining equations for the population inversion in the mode-locked laser and cross-phase-modulation-coupled complex Ginzburg-Landau equations for amplitudes of the optical fields in the fiber segments of the laser cavity. The results demonstrate that the Q-switching instability induces the onset of breathing oscillations. The findings offer new possibilities for the design of various regimes of the operation of ultrafast lasers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number153801
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number15
StatePublished - 14 Apr 2023


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