In a series of six experiments, the method of magnitude estimation, constrained by a multivariate model, was used to assess the rules that govern the summation of the loudness of two-tone complexes. This methodology enabled us to specify the amounts of summation and simultaneously to construct the corresponding loudness scales. The components had different frequency separations and in the different experiments were presented (1) dichotically, a different frequency to each ear; (2) diotically, to both ears; and (3) monaurally. Results replicated and in some conditions extended known features of multiple signal processing by the auditory system. Thus, qualitatively different rules of loudness integration appeared. For monaural and diotic modes of stimulation, overall loudness depended on total sound energy within the critical band, but on the simple sum of component loudnesses beyond the critical band. For dichotic presentations, a fully additive rule of loudness summation appeared, regardless of frequency spacing. For the latter (but not the former), loudness summation was perfect, with the underlying loudness scales closely approximating Stevens's sone scale.