Developmental trajectories of brain structure in adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A longitudinal study

Doron Gothelf, Lauren Penniman, Eugene Gu, Stephan Eliez, Allan L. Reiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with very high rates of schizophrenia-like psychosis and cognitive deficits. Here we report the results of the first longitudinal study assessing brain development in individuals with 22q11.2DS. Twenty-nine children with 22q11.2DS and 29 age and gender matched controls were first assessed during childhood or early adolescence; Nineteen subjects with 22q11.2DS and 18 controls underwent follow-up during late adolescence-early adulthood. The 22q11.2DS subjects showed greater longitudinal increase in cranial and cerebellar white matter, superior temporal gyrus, and caudate nucleus volumes. They also had a more robust decrease in amygdala volume. Verbal IQ (VIQ) scores of the 22q11.2DS group that developed psychotic disorders declined significantly between assessments. Decline in VIQ in 22q11.2DS was associated with more robust reduction of left cortical grey matter volume. No volumetric differences were detected between psychotic and nonpsychotic subjects with 22q11.2DS. Brain maturation associated with verbal cognitive development in 22q11.2DS varies from that observed in healthy controls. Further longitudinal studies are likely to elucidate brain developmental trajectories in 22q11.2DS and their association to psychotic disorders and cognitive deficits in this population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-81
Number of pages10
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - Nov 2007


  • Adolescents
  • Amygdala
  • Caudate nucleus
  • Development
  • Longitudinal
  • Neuroanatomy
  • Psychosis
  • Superior temporal gyrus
  • Velocardiofacial syndrome
  • Verbal IQ
  • White matter


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