Development and management of irrigation systems in mountain regions of the Holy Land.

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Very sophisticated methods have been employed to facilitate the exploitation of springs for irrigated agriculture since ancient times. The methods of spring exploitation and development show an accumulation of geohydrological knowledge in ancient times. These irrigation systems include three kinds of installations; 1) subterranean outflow installations; 2) installations for impounding and distributing water for terrace irrigation; 3) levelled terraces irrigated by gravity. An irrigation system was built as a whole unit, planned in advance, with complete compatibility between the location of the spring, its outflow and the size and pattern of the terrace system. Similar irrigation systems and agricultural methods are found not only in mountain areas in the Middle East (as in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Asir mountains of Yemen and Saudi Arabia, Iran) but also in the Andes of Peru and mountainous areas in Nepal. Detailed research on the irrigation systems in Israel can shed light on ancient and traditional agricultural methods which were, and still are, common in various mountainous regions around the world.-from Author

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)149-169
Number of pages21
JournalTransactions of the Institute of British Geographers
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1985


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