Hepatitis C (HCV) is common in developing countries, where blood sampling and expensive sophisticated methods for detection are less available. Hemodialysis patients have high prevalence of HCV and may resemble sick populations in developing countries in relation to immunosuppression and antibodies production. For these reasons anti-HCV antibodies were assayed in saliva of hemodialysis patients by ImmunoComb II assay that is less laborious, relatively inexpensive and easy to perform If the findings are confirmed by larger studies this method may be useful especially in developing countries. Serum and saliva samples were obtained from 37 hemodialysis patients and assayed by ImmunoComb II kit. In positive PCR patients the saliva test had 100% sensitivity, which was as good as serum anti-HCV Axsym testing. Saliva testing had a similar or better specificity than the serum method.