Theory: I take a resource dependence perspective on the reform of collectivized agriculture. Hypothesis: Collective farms resist breakup if they are dependent on resources distributed through the command economy. The state's role in the distribution of resources is explained by its relationship to the peasantry before collectivization. Methods: I use comparative case histories of Russian and Chinese agriculture. Results: Large-scale decollectivization of agriculture will not occur in Russia as long as collective farms remain dependent on redistribution through the state apparatus. The role of collectivization in the state-building process explains why the Soviet collective farm was tied strongly to the state, while the Chinese collective farm was not.