Current role of intravitreal injections in Irvine Gass syndrome-CRIIG study

Ashish Sharma*, Francesco Bandello, Anat Loewenstein, Baruch D. Kuppermann, Paolo Lanzetta, Dinah Zur, Assaf Hilely, Matias Iglicki, Daniele Veritti, Angeline Wang, Fernando Miassi, David Bellocq, Leandro Cabral Zacharias, Deepika Makam, Nilesh Kumar, Nikulaa Parachuri, Alan K. Barriera, Rohini Sharma, Hafeez Faridi, Thibaud MathisLaurent Kodjikian

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To analyze the role of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) or steroid injection for the management of Irvine Gass syndrome. Methods: It is an interventional, retrospective, multicenter study. One hundred and thirty-two injections were given in 79 eyes of 72 patients with Irvine Gass syndrome. Patients were treated with at least one intravitreal injection of either anti-VEGF or steroid. Outcomes were measured at 12 months (± 1 week). [Ranibizumab (Lucentis; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) (Razumab; Intas Pharmaceutical Ltd, Ahmedabad, India) Bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) or Aflibercept (Eylea; Regeneron, Tarrytown, NY)] or steroids [Dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex, Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA) or intravitreal triamcinolone)]. Results: Intravitreal injections were initiated in (67.6%) of eyes within 14 weeks of diagnosis. Intravitreal dexamethasone implant was used as the initial intravitreal therapy in (73.4%) of eyes. More than fifty percent (54.5%) of the patients were switched from anti-VEGF to Intravitreal dexamethasone implant. Reduction in the mean CMT was 336.7 ± 191.7 and 160.1 ± 153.1 microns in eyes treated within four weeks and more than 14 weeks from diagnosis (p = 0.005). Mean ETDRS letter gain was 16.7 ± 12.9 and 5.2 ± 9.2 in eyes treated within 4 weeks and more than 14 weeks from diagnosis (p = 0.004). Three eyes injected with intravitreal dexamethasone implant reported an intraocular pressure spike of > 25 mmHg which was controlled with topical medications. No other ocular or systemic adverse events were observed. Conclusion: Study results suggest that physicians tend to introduce intravitreal therapy within 14 weeks of diagnosis. The most common therapy at initiation and for the switch is intravitreal dexamethasone implant. Patients treated early (within 4 weeks) respond better in terms of structure and function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3067-3075
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Ophthalmology
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2020


  • Cystoid macular edema
  • Intravitreal injection
  • Irvine Gass syndrome
  • Management
  • Pharmacotherapy


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