Prompt and accurate diagnosis is required for optimal treatment and genetic counseling of patients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS). However, the diverse clinical picture of these syndromes and their rareness is often associated with diagnostic difficulties. Recently, an improved diagnostic approach is possible by the cloning of many of the causative genes. Fanconi anemia (FA) patients belong to at least 12 complementation groups, of which 11 genes have been cloned. An approach combining an induced chromosomal breakage test, detection of FANCD2-L by Western blot analysis, complementation group analysis, and detailed mutation analysis enables unraveling the causative mutation in the majority of patients. With the use of such strategies, genotype/phenotype correlations in FA are evolving. In dyskeratosis congenita mutations in DCK1, TERC, and TERT genes have been identified, but mutations have been found in less than half of these patients. In patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, mutations in the SBDS gene were found in approximately 90% of patients. In Diamond-Blackfan anemia the RSP19 gene is mutated in 20-25% of patients. Heterozygote ELA2 mutations are found in 60-80% of severe congenital neutropenia patients. All patients with congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia have mutations in the thrombopoietin receptor gene c-Mpl.
- Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia
- Diamond Black fan anemia
- Dyskeratosis congenital
- Fanconi anemia
- Inherited bone marrow failure syndrome
- Severe congenital neutropenia
- Shwachman-Diamond syndrome