New Findings: What is the topic of this review? This paper overviews the links between Ca2+ and Na+ signalling in various types of cells. What advances does it highlight? This paper highlights the general importance of ionic signalling and overviews the molecular mechanisms linking Na+ and Ca2+ dynamics. In particular, the narrative focuses on the molecular physiology of plasmalemmal and mitochondrial Na+–Ca2+ exchangers and plasmalemmal transient receptor potential channels. Functional consequences of Ca2+ and Na+ signalling for co-ordination of neuronal activity with astroglial homeostatic pathways fundamental for synaptic transmission are discussed. Abstract: Transmembrane ionic gradients, which are an indispensable feature of life, are used for generation of cytosolic ionic signals that regulate a host of cellular functions. Intracellular signalling mediated by Ca2+ and Na+ is tightly linked through several molecular pathways that generate Ca2+ and Na+ fluxes and are in turn regulated by both ions. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels bridge endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release with generation of Na+ and Ca2+ currents. The plasmalemmal Na+–Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) flickers between forward and reverse mode to co-ordinate the influx and efflux of both ions with membrane polarization and cytosolic ion concentrations. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter channel (MCU) and mitochondrial Na+–Ca2+ exchanger (NCLX) mediate Ca2+ entry into and release from this organelle and couple cytosolic Ca2+ and Na+ fluctuations with cellular energetics. Cellular Ca2+ and Na+ signalling controls numerous functional responses and, in the CNS, provides for fast regulation of astroglial homeostatic cascades that are crucial for maintenance of synaptic transmission.
- Ca signalling
- Na signalling
- Na–Ca exchanger
- mitochondrial calcium uniporter
- transient receptor potential channels