Cross-cultural validation of the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ) in insomnia patients

Ricardo Tarrasch, Moshe Laudon, Nava Zisapel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ) is a standardized self-reporting instrument comprising ten 100 mm visual analogue scales that pertain to the ease of getting to sleep (GTS), quality of sleep (QOS), ease of awakening from sleep (AFS) and alertness and behaviour following wakefulness (BFW). Although the LSEQ has been used in a variety of populations, published psychometric data on insomnia patients are limited. The LSEQ reliability and construct validity was evaluated in 396 French insomnia patients aged 55 years and over, who were treated with placebo (2 weeks) and melatonin (3 weeks). The results supported LSEQ internal consistency, reliability and construct validity with minor differences from those of the original English version. Then the internal consistency of the LSEQ was evaluated in 257 insomnia patients (age 20-80 years) in France and Israel who, following a 1 week placebo baseline, were randomized to placebo or melatonin treatment for 3 weeks. Cronbach's α and Pearson's r correlation coefficients for placebo and drug treatment conditions (p < 0.001 for all) supported LSEQ internal consistency in different treatment and age groups and in different languages. It is concluded that the consistency, reliability and validity of the four LSEQ domains allows them to be singled out as independent outcome variables in cross cultural sleep research and clinical practice in adult and elderly patients with insomnia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)603-610
Number of pages8
JournalHuman Psychopharmacology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Dec 2003


  • Factor
  • Insomnia
  • Leeds
  • Questionnaire
  • Sleep
  • Validation


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