Our recent experiments suggest that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) enhances neurite outgrowth of dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion cells, indirectly, via the release of a trophic factor from the spinal cord. In this study, we have examined the possible contribution of activity- dependent neurotrophic factor (ADNF) to the trophic actions of VIP. In addition, as we have shown that the factor mediating the trophic actions of VIP acts via protein kinase A we have also examined the contribution of CREB, which is a transcription factor activated by protein kinase A. As previously shown, supernatant taken from spinal cord incubated with VIP, significantly increased the percentage of sensory neurons with neurites. Antiserum against ADNF attenuated the trophic effect of the VIP-conditioned supernatant. Consistently, the ADNF agonist, ADNF14 (0.001-0.1 fM), significantly enhanced the percentage of cells with neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, the trophic action of ADNF14 was attenuated by a protein kinase A inhibitor, Rp-cAMPS, whereas the inactive isomer, Sp-cAMPS, had no effect. Preincubation of cells with 5 μM CREB antisense oligonucleotides, attenuated the increase in neurite outgrowth induced by either the supernatant or ADNF14. The sense oligonucleotide had no influence on the enhanced neurite outgrowth. We also found that both the supernatant and ADNF14 induced an increase in the percentage of cells expressing phosphorylated CREB. The data suggests that VIP induces a release of neurotrophic factors, such as ADNF, which enhance neurite outgrowth. In addition, protein kinase A and CREB appear to contribute to the neurotrophic actions of VIP and ADNF. The mechanisms underlying the neurotrophic action of VIP, may have important implications for sprouting and/or synaptic reorganization of central terminals of sensory neurons, which may contribute to neuropathic pain that commonly occurs following peripheral nerve damage. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
- Activity-dependent neurotrophic factor
- Dorsal root ganglion cells
- Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
- cAMP responsive binding protein