Patients receiving chemotherapy are at high risk for severe infections and complications such as acute respiratory syndrome. The most commonly used adjuvant chemotherapy protocols (docetaxel-cyclophosphamide every 3 weeks or the dose-dense regimen, doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide every 2 weeks followed by paclitaxel) incorporate granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). G-CSF is routinely administered to prevent chemotherapy-associated neutropenia but often results in significant neutrophilia. The present case describes a patient with breast cancer who was successfully treated for severe COVID-19 respiratory syndrome while under adjuvant chemotherapy (docetaxel-cyclophosphamide) treatment and long-term G-CSF support. In addition, the potential effect of G-CSF on the respiratory deterioration of the patient given its cardinal role in innate inflammation and, accordingly, the cytokine storm associated with COVID-19 was described. The case described in the present study indicated how solutions to the immunity challenges faced when treating a patient with chemotherapy may be the source of a larger problem within the coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic.
- Breast cancer
- Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor
- Respiratory syndrome