Dendritic polyelectrolytes constitute high potential drugs and carrier systems for biomedical purposes. Still, their biomolecular interaction modes, in particular those determining the binding affinity to proteins, have not been rationalized. We study the interaction of the drug candidate dendritic polyglycerol sulfate (dPGS) with serum proteins using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) interpreted and complemented with molecular computer simulations. Lysozyme is first studied as a well-defined model protein to verify theoretical concepts, which are then applied to the important cell adhesion protein family of selectins. We demonstrate that the driving force of the strong complexation, leading to a distinct protein corona, originates mainly from the release of only a few condensed counterions from the dPGS upon binding. The binding constant shows a surprisingly weak dependence on dPGS size (and bare charge) which can be understood by colloidal charge-renormalization effects and by the fact that the magnitude of the dominating counterion-release mechanism almost exclusively depends on the interfacial charge structure of the protein-specific binding patch. Our findings explain the high selectivity of P- and L-selectins over E-selectin for dPGS to act as a highly anti-inflammatory drug. The entire analysis demonstrates that the interaction of proteins with charged polymeric drugs can be predicted by simulations with unprecedented accuracy. Thus, our results open new perspectives for the rational design of charged polymeric drugs and carrier systems.