Cost of healthcare utilization associated with incident cardiovascular and renal disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes: A multinational, observational study across 12 countries

CaReMe Cardiorenal Investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Aim: To examine how the development of cardiovascular and renal disease (CVRD) translates to hospital healthcare costs in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) initially free from CVRD. Methods: Data were obtained from the digital healthcare systems of 12 nations using a prespecified protocol. A fixed country-specific index date of 1 January was chosen to secure sufficient cohort disease history and maximal follow-up, varying between each nation from 2006 to 2017. At index, all individuals were free from any diagnoses of CVRD (including heart failure [HF], chronic kidney disease [CKD], coronary ischaemic disease, stroke, myocardial infarction [MI], or peripheral artery disease [PAD]). Outcomes during follow-up were hospital visits for CKD, HF, MI, stroke, and PAD. Hospital healthcare costs obtained from six countries, representing 68% of the total study population, were cumulatively summarized for CVRD events occurring during follow-up. Results: In total, 1.2 million CVRD-free individuals with T2D were identified and followed for 4.5 years (mean), that is, 4.9 million patient-years. The proportion of individuals indexed before 2010 was 18% (n = 207 137); 2010-2015, 31% (361 175); and after 2015, 52% (609 095). Overall, 184 420 (15.7%) developed CVRD, of which cardiorenal disease was most frequently the first disease to develop (59.7%), consisting of 23.0% HF and 36.7% CKD, and more common than stroke (16.9%), MI (13.7%), and PAD (9.7%). The total cumulative cost for CVRD was US$1 billion, of which 59.0% was attributed to cardiorenal disease, 3-, 5-, and 6-fold times greater than the costs for stroke, MI, and PAD, respectively. Conclusion: Across all nations, HF or CKD was the most frequent CVRD manifestation to develop in a low-risk population with T2D, accounting for the highest proportion of hospital healthcare costs. These novel findings highlight the importance of cardiorenal awareness when planning healthcare.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1277-1287
Number of pages11
JournalDiabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Volume24
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2022
Externally publishedYes

Funding

FundersFunder number
Fernie Penning
Louise Lemmens
Marco Gnesi
Norwegian Cause of Death Registry
Prof. Ron Herings
AstraZeneca

    Keywords

    • SGLT2 inhibitor
    • cardiovascular disease
    • diabetic nephropathy
    • health economics
    • heart failure
    • type 2 diabetes

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