Objective: To evaluate, in economic terms, active vaccination campaigns against hepatitis A in comparison with the use of nonspecific immune globulin for the prevention of the disease among daycare centre employees in Israel. Setting: Hypothetical analysis of the costs and benefits related to vaccination campaigns of workers currently employed in daycare centres in Israel. Methods: A cost-benefit analysis was performed, comparing mass and selective active vaccination strategies for the daycare centre working force. Direct and indirect costs of diagnosis, treatment and immunisation as well as productivity loss were considered. A Markov-based model was developed using data from previous epidemiological studies and literature. Results: The benefit-to-cost ratios of selective and mass active vaccination strategies were 1.50 [net present value (NPV) $US606 396] and 0.04 (NPV-$US2.36 million), respectively (2000 values). Conclusion: Under these study assumptions, the practice of administering hepatitis A active vaccine to serologically proven non-immune daycare centre workers has a cost-benefit justification, and should be widely considered in countries with a similar hepatitis A epidemiology to that in this study.