Cortical bone remodeling/tooth movement ratio during maxillary incisor retraction with tip versus torque movements.

A. D. Vardimon, E. Oren, Y. Ben-Bassat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The validity of the postulate "bone traces tooth movement" was examined on 40 Angle Cl II cases. It was hypothesized that a 1:1 cortical bone remodeling/tooth movement ratio is preserved during maxillary incisor retraction. The sample was divided into retraction with tip (13 patients), retraction with torque (18 patients), and control (9 patients) groups. Two time point cephalograms were analyzed with two superimposition techniques, SN at S and a newly developed static tooth analysis, with the maxillary left central incisor serving as a reference object. In both retraction with tip and retraction with torque groups, the postulate bone traces tooth movement was not preserved and a bone remodeling/tooth movement ratio of 1:2 and 1:2.35 was obtained, respectively. In retraction with tip movement, the apical one third of the root tipped labially reducing the superior area of labial maxillaris by 19%. However, due to the compensating effect of the retraction movement, no apex approximation to the labial cortical plate occurred (eliminating the hazard of root resorption, dehiscence, or fenestration). In retraction with torque movement, the increase in both superior (28%) and inferior (65%) labial maxillaris areas was indicative for the hazard of root approximation to the palatal cortical bone. It is recommended to use the 1:2 bone remodeling/tooth movement ratio as a guideline to determine the biocompatible range of orthodontic tooth movements. Furthermore, a judicious interplay between the two modes of retraction can prevent major biologic impairments associated with the ratio and can extend the orthodontic range of treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)520-529
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 1998


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