## Abstract

ELDOR (Electron Double Resonance)-detected NMR (EDNMR) is a pulse EPR experiment that is used to measure the transition frequencies of nuclear spins coupled to electron spins. These frequencies are further used to determine hyperfine and quadrupolar couplings, which are signatures of the electronic and spatial structures of paramagnetic centers. In recent years, EDNMR has been shown to be particularly useful at high fields/high frequencies, such as W-band (∼95 GHz, ∼3.5 T), for low γ quadrupolar nuclei. Although at high fields the nuclear Larmor frequencies are usually well resolved, the limited resolution of EDNMR still remains a major concern. In this work we introduce a two dimensional, triple resonance, correlation experiment based on the EDNMR pulse sequence, which we term 2D-EDNMR. This experiment allows circumventing the resolution limitation by spreading the signals in two dimensions and the observed correlations help in the assignment of the signals. First we demonstrate the utility of the 2D-EDNMR experiment on a nitroxide spin label, where we observe correlations between ^{14}N nuclear frequencies. Negative cross-peaks appear between lines belonging to different M_{S} electron spin manifolds. We resolved two independent correlation patterns for nuclear frequencies arising from the EPR transitions corresponding to the ^{14}N m_{I} = 0 and m_{I} = -1 nuclear spin states, which severely overlap in the one dimensional EDNMR spectrum. The observed correlations could be accounted for by considering changes in the populations of energy levels that S = 1/2, I = 1 spin systems undergo during the pulse sequence. In addition to these negative cross-peaks, positive cross-peaks appear as well. We present a theoretical model based on the Liouville equation and use it to calculate the time evolution of populations of the various energy levels during the 2D-EDNMR experiment and generated simulated 2D-EDMR spectra. These calculations show that the positive cross-peaks appear due to off resonance effects and/or nuclear relaxation effects. These results suggest that the 2D-EDNMR experiment can be also useful for relaxation pathway studies. Finally we present preliminary results demonstrating that 2D-EDNMR can resolve overlapping ^{33}S and ^{14}N signals of type 1 Cu(II) center in ^{33}S enriched Azurin.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 77-89 |

Number of pages | 13 |

Journal | Journal of Magnetic Resonance |

Volume | 240 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Mar 2014 |

Externally published | Yes |

## Keywords

- ELDOR detected NMR
- Hyperfine spectroscopy
- Nitroxide
- Pulsed EPR
- S sulfur
- Two dimensional correlation spectroscopy