Coronary Sinus Narrowing Improves Coronary Microcirculation Function in Patients With Refractory Angina: A Multicenter Prospective INROAD Study

Matteo Tebaldi, Gianluca Campo*, Fabrizio Ugo, Stefano Guarracini, Andrea Marrone, Stefano Clò, Mohamed Abdirashid, Michele Di Mauro, Francesco Rametta, Massimo Di Marco, Marta Cocco, Federico Marchini, Carlo Penzo, Andrea Erriquez, Shmuel Banai, Simone Biscaglia

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: The underlying mechanisms responsible for the clinical benefits following coronary sinus narrowing and pressure elevation remain unclear. The present study aims to investigate whether coronary sinus narrowing improves the indexes of coronary microcirculatory function. METHODS: Patients with refractory angina who had a clinical indication for reducer implantation underwent invasive physiological assessments before and 4 months after the procedure. The primary outcome was the change in the values of the index of microcirculatory resistance. Secondary end points included changes in coronary flow reserve and the resistive resistance ratio values. Angina status was assessed with the Canadian Cardiology Society class and the Seattle Angina Questionnaire. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients with a history of obstructive coronary artery disease and prior coronary revascularization treated with reducer implantation were enrolled, and 21 of them (87%) underwent repeated invasive coronary physiological assessment after 4 months. The index of microcirculatory resistance values decreased from 33.35±19.88 at baseline to 15.42±11.36 at 4-month follow-up (P<0.001; mean difference, -17.90 [95% CI, -26.16 to -9.64]). A significant (≥20% from baseline) reduction of the index of microcirculatory resistance was observed in 15 (71.4% [95% CI, 47.8%-88.7%]) patients. The number of patients with abnormal index of microcirculatory resistance (≥25) decreased from 12 (57%) to 4 (19%; P=0.016). Coronary flow reserve increased from 2.46±1.52 to 4.20±2.52 (mean difference, 1.73 [95% CI, 0.51-2.96]). Similar findings were observed for resistive resistance ratio values. Overall, 16 patients (76.1%) had an improvement of 1 Canadian Cardiology Society class. Seattle Angina Questionnaire summary score increase of around 3 points (3.01 [95% CI, 1.39-4.61]). CONCLUSIONS: Coronary sinus reduction implantation is associated with a significant improvement in the parameters of coronary microcirculatory function. These findings provide insights into the improvement of angina symptoms and may have implications for the treatment of coronary microvascular dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E013481
JournalCirculation: Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • angina pectoris
  • coronary sinus
  • microcirculation
  • perfusion
  • thermodilution


Dive into the research topics of 'Coronary Sinus Narrowing Improves Coronary Microcirculation Function in Patients With Refractory Angina: A Multicenter Prospective INROAD Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this