The study aim was to examine possible correlates of convulsions in children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Data collected in a prospective study of AGE hospitalizations in children aged 0–59 months in 3 hospitals in Israel during 2008–2015 were analyzed. Stool samples were tested for rotavirus using immunochromatography and stool culture was performed for the detection of Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter We compared clinical and demographic characteristics of children hospitalized for AGE who had convulsions (n = 68, cases) with children hospitalized for AGE without convulsions (n = 3505, controls). Age differed between children with and without convulsions (p = 0.005); the former were mostly toddlers aged 12–23 months (51%) compared to 30% of the control group. A higher percentage of cases tested positive for Shigella (11% vs. 4%, p = 0.002), the opposite was found for rotavirus (2% vs. 30% p < 0.001). A multivariable model showed that body temperature (OR 2.91 [95% CI 1.78–4.76], p < 0.001) and high blood glucose level (> 120 mg/dL) (OR 5.71 [95% CI 1.27–25.58] p = 0.023) were positively related to convulsions in children with AGE, while severe AGE (Vesikari score ≥ 11) was inversely related with convulsions (OR 0.09 [95% CI 0.03–0.24], p < 0.001). Conclusion: Elevated body temperature is associated with convulsions in children with AGE, but not severity of AGE, while hyperglycemia might reflect a neuroendocrine stress reaction to convulsions, AGE or both.