Contribution of active surveillance cultures to the control of hospital-acquired carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in an endemic hospital setting

Debby Ben-David*, Yael Cohen, Gabrielle Levi, Alona Keren-Paz, Diana Tasher, Gisele Zandman-Goddard, Orna Schwartz, Yasmin Maor

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Despite the increasing rates of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) carriage among hospitalized patients in endemic settings, the role of active surveillance cultures and cohorting is still debated. We sought to determine the long-term effect of a multifaceted infection-control intervention on the incidence of CRAB in an endemic setting. Methods: A prospective, quasi-experimental study was performed at a 670-bed, acute-care hospital. The study consisted of 4 phases. In phase I, basic infection control measures were used. In phase II, CRAB carriers were cohorted in a single ward with dedicated nursing and enhanced environmental cleaning. In phase III large-scale screening in high-risk units was implemented. Phase IV comprised a 15-month follow-up period. Results: During the baseline period, the mean incidence rate (IDR) of CRAB was 44 per 100,000 patient days (95% CI, 37.7-54.1). No significant decrease was observed during phase II (IDR, 40.8 per 100,000 patient days; 95% CI, 30.0-56.7; P =.97). During phase III, despite high compliance with control measures, ongoing transmission in several wards was observed and the mean IDR was 53.9 per 100,000 patient days (95% CI, 40.5-72.2; P =.55). In phase IV, following the implementation of large-scale screening, a significant decrease in the mean IDR was observed (25.8 per 100,000 patient days; 95% CI, 19.9-33.5; P =.03). An overall reduction of CRAB rate was observed between phase I and phase IV (rate ratio, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9; P <.001). Conclusions: The comprehensive intervention that included intensified control measures with routine active screening cultures was effective in reducing the incidence of CRAB in an endemic hospital setting.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInfection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

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