The significance of the location of intrauterine contraceptive device in relation to the gestational sac on pregnancy outcome was studied in 13 pregnant women after extraction of the device. Of the seven women (group 1) who had the intrauterine contraceptive device removed after initial localization by sonography, two (28.5%) miscarried. In both cases the device was located cephalad or lateral to the gestational sac. In six women (group 2) continuous sonographic scanning was undertaken to visualize the extraction procedure. Traction on an intrauterine device located laterally (two cases) or cephalad (one case) to the gestational sac was followed by distortion of the sac configuration. Gentle intermittent traction on the contraceptive device resulted in successful extraction procedure. These preliminary observations suggest that pregnancies with an intrauterine contraceptive device located laterally or cephalad to the gestational sac are at greater risk during extraction of the device. Sonographic monitoring of the extraction procedure during pregnancy may minimize the hazards of intrauterine contraceptive device failure.