We investigate the power of low-energy, high-luminosity electron-positron colliders to probe hidden sectors with a mass below ∼10 GeV that couple to Standard Model particles through a light mediator. Such sectors provide well-motivated dark matter candidates, and can give rise to distinctive mono-photon signals at B-factories and similar experiments. We use data from an existing mono-photon search by BABAR to place new constraints on this class of models, and give projections for the sensitivity of a similar search at a future B-factory such as Belle II. We find that the sensitivity of such searches are more powerful than searches at other collider or fixed-target facilities for hidden-sector mediators and particles with masses between a few hundred MeV and 10 GeV. Mediators produced on-shell and decaying invisibly to hidden-sector particles such as dark matter can be probed particularly well. Sensitivity to light dark matter produced through an off-shell mediator is more limited, but may be improved with a better control of backgrounds, allowing background estimation and a search for kinematic edges. We compare our results to existing and future direct detection experiments and show that low-energy colliders provide an indispensable and complementary avenue to search for light dark matter. The implementation of a mono-photon trigger at Belle II would provide an unparalleled window into such light hidden sectors.
- Beyond standard model
- Electromagnetic processes and properties