Conflict Versus Consensus Strategic Orientations Among Environmental NGOs: An Empirical Evaluation

Shira Leon Zchout, Alon Tal*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Israeli environmental non-government organizations (ENGOs) are assessed in light of Resource Mobilization Theory, introducing a new method for dividing ENGOs according to strategic orientation. Based on a national survey, 85 groups are categorized as consensus ENGOs that seek understanding aim at finding common grounds, or as conflict ENGOs working “outside the system.” Results show that conflict ENGOs are more grassroots in orientation and consensus ENGOs are more professionalized. Conflict ENGOs operate primarily in local arenas. Consensus ENGOs appear more stable, with larger annual budgets and paid staff, but with fewer registered members. Consensus ENGOs enjoy a wider variety of income sources; receive more funding from government, foreign, and private donations; and have a broader range of self-generated income sources. Conflict ENGOs depend more on membership fees. Both groups are highly dependent on foundation grants. In general, greater resources are associated with consensus activity than among organizations utilizing conflict tactics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1110-1134
Number of pages25
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2017
Externally publishedYes


FundersFunder number
JMG Foundation of London
JMG Foundation


    • Environmental movement
    • Green NGOs Israel
    • Strategies


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