Comprehensive analysis of correlations in the expression of mirna genes and immune checkpoint genes in bladder cancer cells

Przemysław A. Stempor, Dror Avni, Raya Leibowitz, Yechezkel Sidi, Maria Stępień, Tomasz Dzieciątkowski, Paula Dobosz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Personalised medicine is the future and hope for many patients, including those with cancers. Early detection, as well as rapid, well-selected treatment, are key factors leading to a good prognosis. MicroRNA mediated gene regulation is a promising area of development for new diagnostic and therapeutic methods, crucial for better prospects for patients. Bladder cancer is a frequent neoplasm, with high lethality and lacking modern, advanced therapeutic modalities, such as im-munotherapy. MicroRNAs are involved in bladder cancer pathogenesis, proliferation, control and response to treatment, which we summarise in this perspective in response to lack of recent review publications in this field. We further performed a correlation-based analysis of microRNA and gene expression data in bladder cancer (BLCA) TCGA dataset. We identified 27 microRNAs hits with opposite expression profiles to genes involved in immune response in bladder cancer, and 24 mi-croRNAs hits with similar expression profiles. We discuss previous studies linking the functions of these microRNAs to bladder cancer and assess if they are good candidates for personalised medicine therapeutics and diagnostics. The discussed functions include regulation of gene expression, interplay with transcription factors, response to treatment, apoptosis, cell proliferation and angio-genesis, initiation and development of cancer, genome instability and tumour-associated inflammatory reaction.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2553
Pages (from-to)1-28
Number of pages28
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2021


  • Bladder cancer
  • Immune checkpoints
  • Immunological synapse
  • MiRNA
  • MicroRNA
  • Noncoding RNAs


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