The present study investigated the compounds present in the low molecular mass fraction of Lentinus edodes mushroom (shiitake) extract and their anti-virulence activity against oral pathogens (reference and clinical Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Prevotella intermedia strains). Oxalic, succinic, and quinic acids, and adenine, inosine, and uridine were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Their anti-biofilm production and preformed biofilm disaggregation activities were studied using commercial standard compounds at different concentrations. As regards S. mutans, the highest activity was shown by adenine at 5 mg mL-1 both in the biofilm inhibition (BI 50%) and biofilm disaggregation tests (BD 20%). Considering A. naeslundii, BI values close to 80% were registered for oxalic acid at 1 mg mL-1 and 2 mg mL-1 and BD 50% for quinic acid at 3 mg mL-1. A weaker activity was found against P. intermedia. Furthermore, different mixtures of the commercial standards were tested showing that the activity of a compound can be strongly and sometimes negatively affected by the presence of the other compounds.