Complicated Pocket Infection in Patients Undergoing Lead Extraction: Characteristics and Outcomes

Anat Milman*, Anat Wieder-Finesod, Guy Zahavi, Amit Meitus, Saar Kariv, Yuval Shafir, Roy Beinart, Galia Rahav, Eyal Nof

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection can present with pocket or systemic manifestations, both necessitating complete device removal and pathogen-directed antimicrobial therapy. Here, we aim to characterize those presenting with both pocket and systemic infection. A retrospective analysis of CIED extraction procedures included 300 patients divided into isolated pocket (n = 104, 34.7%), complicated pocket (n = 54, 18%), and systemic infection (n = 142, 47.3%) groups. The systemic and complicated pocket groups frequently presented with leukocytosis and fever > 37.8, as opposed to the isolated pocket group. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen in the systemic and complicated pocket groups (43.7% and 31.5%, respectively), while Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS) predominated (31.7%) in the isolated pocket group (10.6%, p < 0.001). No differences were observed in procedural success or complications rates. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis found that at three years of follow-up, the rate of all-cause mortality was significantly higher among patients with systemic infection compared to both pocket groups (p < 0.001), with the curves diverging at thirty days. In this study, we characterize a new entity of complicated pocket infection. Despite the systemic pattern of infection, their prognosis is similar to isolated pocket infection. We suggest that this special category be presented separately in future publications of CIED infections.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4397
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 2023


  • cardiac implantable electronic device
  • infection
  • transvenous lead extraction


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