Complement and coagulation are both key systems that defend the body from harm. They share multiple features and are similarly activated. They each play individual roles in the systemic circulation in physiology and pathophysiology, with significant crosstalk between them. Components from both systems are mapped to important structures in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). Complement and coagulation participate in critical functions in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. During pathophysiological states, complement and coagulation factors are upregulated and can modulate synaptic transmission and neuronal conduction. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the roles of the complement system and the coagulation cascade in the CNS and PNS. Possible crosstalk between the two systems regarding neuroinflammatory-related effects on synaptic transmission and neuronal conduction is explored. Novel treatment based on the modulation of crosstalk between complement and coagulation may perhaps help to alleviate neuroinflammatory effects in diseased states of the CNS and PNS.
- Node of Ranvier
- Synaptic transmission