OBJECTIVES: The composite T-graft with radial artery (RA) attached end-to-side to the left internal thoracic artery (ITA) provides arterial myocardial revascularization without the increased risk of deep sternal wound infection associated with harvesting 2 ITAs. However, many surgeons are reluctant to use RA in patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) due to concerns regarding the quality of the conduit in this subset of patients. The purpose of this study is to compare early- and long-term outcomes of arterial grafting with bilateral ITAs (BITA) to that of single ITA and RA in patients with PVD. METHODS: Between 1999 and 2010, 619 consecutive patients with PVD (500 BITAs and 119 single ITA and RA) underwent myocardial revascularization in our institution. RESULTS: Occurrence of following risk factors as female sex, age 70+, diabetes, unstable angina, emergency operation, cerebrovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was higher in the RA-ITA group. The RA-ITA group also had a higher logistic EuroSCORE (22.1 vs 13.3). Operative mortality and occurrence of deep sternal wound infection of the two groups was similar (4.2% vs 5.0% and 2.5% vs 4.0% for the radial and bilateral ITA, respectively). Median follow-up was 9.75 years. Unadjusted Kaplan-Meier 10-year survival of the two groups was similar (44.1% vs 49.6%, P = 0.7). After propensity score matching (100 pairs), assignment to BITA was not associated with better adjusted survival (hazard ratio 0.593, 95% confidence interval 0.265-1.327, P = 0.20, Cox model). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with PVD, complete arterial revascularization with left ITA and RA can be justified with regards to survival.