Patients with recurrent acute myocardial infarction (AMI), who represent ≤35% of hospitalized patients with AMI, are at an increased risk of complications and death. Our study purpose was to compare the treatment and outcome of patients hospitalized with recurrent acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) from 1998 to 2006 with those of patients with a first STEMI. We performed 5 biennial nationwide 2-month surveys during 1998 to 2006, collecting data prospectively from all patients hospitalized for AMI or acute coronary syndrome in all 25 coronary care units in Israel. The present cohort included 4,543 patients with STEMI, 3,679 (76%) with first and 864 (24%) with recurrent STEMI. The patients with recurrent STEMI were older (66 ± 13 vs 62 ± 13 years), had greater rates of diabetes, hypertension, and previous angina, had a worse Killip class on admission, and experienced more in-hospital complications. The all-cause hospital crude mortality rate was 8.1% in patients with recurrent STEMI versus 5.5% in those with a first STEMI (adjusted odds ratio 1.71 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 2.44), and the 1-year mortality rate was 18.9% versus 10.9%, respectively (hazard ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval 1.41 to 2.43). From 1998 to 2006, an insignificant trend toward a 1-year mortality reduction among patients with recurrent STEMI was seen and those with a first STEMI had a significant mortality decrease. In conclusion, patients admitted for recurrent STEMI have worse in-hospital and 1-year outcomes that did not improve during the study period. An improved therapeutic approach is needed for these high-risk patients.