Current guidelines do not account for possible sex differences in the risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VTA). We sought to identify specific factors associated with increased risk for VTA in women implanted with a primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Our study cohort consisted of 4,506 patients with an ICD or cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator who were enrolled in the 4 landmark MADIT studies - MADIT-II, MADIT-RISK, MADIT-CRT and MADIT-RIT (1,075 women [24%]). Fine and Gray regression models were used to identify female-specific risk factors for the primary end point of VTA, defined as ICD-recorded, treated, or monitored, sustained ventricular tachycardia ≥170 beats per minute or ventricular fibrillation. At 3.5 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence of VTA was significantly lower in women than men (17% vs 26%, respectively; p <0.001 for the entire follow-up). Use of amiodarone at enrollment, Black race, and history of previous myocardial infarction without previous revascularization was found to be independent risk factors of VTA in women. Of these factors, only Black race was associated with a statistically significant risk increase in men. At 3.5 years, the cumulative incidence of VTA in women with one or more of these risk factors was 27% compared with 14% in women with none of the risk factors (hazard ratio [confidence interval] = 2.08 [1.49 to 2.91]). In conclusion, our study, comprising 4 landmark ICD clinical trials, shows that sex and race have the potential to be used for improved risk stratification of patients who are candidates for primary prevention ICD.