Background: Midfoot arthrodesis is a common procedure performed both for arthritis and correction of deformity. The optimal fixation for midfoot arthrodesis has not been established, though numerous studies have been investigating the fixation techniques of midfoot arthrodesis. The purpose of this study was to compare the union rate of midfoot arthrodesis using 4 different fixation strategies and investigate risk factors of nonunion following midfoot arthrodesis. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for patients who underwent midfoot joint arthrodesis between January 2014 and May 2019. The rates of nonunion and postoperative complication were compared among 4 different fixation constructs: staple fixation, compression plate fixation, compression plate with lag screw fixation, and compression screw fixation. Predictors of nonunion following midfoot arthrodesis were investigated through a multivariable logistic regression analysis. A total of 95 patients (99 feet), including 240 midfoot joints were included in this study. The mean follow-up period was 78.4 weeks. Results: Overall, bony union was achieved in 86 out of 99 (86.9%) patients, which included 218 out of 240 (90.8%) midfoot joints. A significant difference in the nonunion rate according to the type of fixation construct was found (P =.011); the compression screw alone fixation construct was noted to have a significantly higher nonunion rate than other fixation constructs. Diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] = 0.179 [95% CI: 0.059, 0.542]), the type of fixation construct (compression screw alone; OR =1.789 [95% CI: 1.071, 2.978]), lack of adjuvant bone graft (OR = 2.803 [95% CI: 1.081, 7.268], and postoperative nonanatomical alignment (OR = 3.937 [95% CI: 1.278, 12.126]) were identified as independent predictors of nonunion following midfoot arthrodesis. Conclusion: The rate of nonunion following midfoot arthrodesis among 4 different commonly used fixation constructs was compared in this study. Risk factors of nonunion were investigated revealing that diabetes mellitus, compression screw fixation alone, lack of adjuvant bone graft, and postoperative nonanatomical alignment are independent predictors of nonunion following midfoot arthrodesis. Levels of Evidence: Level III: Comparative cohort study.
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